Jon Kolko on problem framing:

The goal of research is widely claimed to be about empathy building and understanding so we can identify and solve problems, and that’s not wrong. But it ignores one of the most important parts of research as an input for design strategy. Research helps produce a problem frame.

A conundrum: The way we articulate design problems implies solutions. At the beginning of a project, we often don’t know enough to communicate the problem well. As a result, we could do an excellent job of solving the wrong thing.

Addressing complex design problems — “solving” them — requires that we define them; that we put a frame around the problem space. This frame emerges from a feedback loop: a round of research leads to some definition, which in turn focuses the next round of research activities, which leads to more definition, etc.

Framing the problem in the way described by Mr. Kolko — by using research to define boundaries and relevant context, and using the resulting insights to guide further research — is a practical way to focus ill-structured problems. It’s an often overlooked part of the design process, and — especially in complex problems — a critical one.

Problem Framing, Not Problem Finding